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All You Need Is Love

Composer(s) : Lennon and McCartney
Year : 1968
Duration :
Key :
Meter :

Chords/Tabs: All You Need Is Love

Notes on the "All You Need Is Love " (AYNIL)

KEY	G Major

METER	4/4 (alternate verse measures and others are 3/4)

FORM	Intro -> Verse ->
		Verse -> Verse -> Refrain ->
			Verse (guitar solo) -> Refrain ->
				Verse -> Refrain -> Refrain -> Outro (fadeout)


GENERAL POINTS OF INTEREST


Style and Form

- In terms of release dates, this song followed remarkably close on the heels of _Sgt. Pepper_. Its genesis and original debut are matters of recording and broadcast history, the details of which I urge you to seek elsewhere to the extent that they are relatively tangential to our own perspective on the music, per se. I could easily argue, by the same token, that the song cannot be considered in isolation of the broadcast's production values and effect; but maybe I'm just being perverse, a wiseguy, or both :-)

- I do strongly recommend that you exert yourself to hear a good quality, complete version of the actual 6/25/67 broadcast, and as much of the video clips of it that have shown up in various documentaries over the years. Media-wise, this track is designed with sort of the reverse experiential strategy used in ADITL. There, the blind mystery of the audio-only medium adds an important element of surprise. Here, without the video clues, I dare say that some of the complexity and point of the procedings is lost. The string players with their clunky earphones, the group also wearing earphones while sitting on high stools, and the crowd of all our friends sitting on the floor in their colorful "costumes" are somehow part of the message that is lost on vinyl; Professor McLuhan should have been impressed.

- The form contains the unusual twist of opening with three consecutive verses. I prefer to parse this at the high level with the first verse being more a part of the intro than of the body of the song; note how this first verse does NOT present the tune of the song, but rather establishes the "love, love, love" chorus part which serves as vocal wallpaper for the rest of the verses which follow. And, yes, I know; for the later verses the pattern is changed to a melissma on a single utterance of The Word.

- The music is cast in a variation of the campy, anthem-ic march style used before on the likes of "Yellow Submarine," though in this case, the number of diverse montage elements used is more complex than before, and the limping meter used in the verses prevents the "march" from sounding too obvious.

- The words, too, contain more interest than initially meets the eye. You not only have the clever retrograde of the title phrase ("love is all you need"), but also some rather off handedly delivered philosophical observations on the ironic tension between the attempts you make to self-direct life's course and the way you learn from experience to accept the influence of so-called destiny. Yes, the lyrics are more to the point than my characterization of them.


Melody and Harmony

- The tune is dominated by a handful of simple motifs: a downward scale fragment reminiscent of "Three Blind Mice" that juicy appoggiatura on the word "easy" in the verse, a fanfare-like hammering on a single note for the title phrase in the refrain, followed by an upward chromatic scale fragment that fancifully imitates the downward fragment offered by the brass band obligatto.

- The most unifying motif is one in the bassline that rises at the end of each phrase (dotted quarter notes D - E - G), and by no accident, I'm positive, this very phrase matches identically the "intentionally misquoted" fragment of the "Marseillaise" used in the intro. From the 1812 Overture to Casablanca, the French nationalistic anthem is a ready-made cliche that is correctly quoted enough of the time that I say what the Beatles did here can be no accident. Even Robert Schumann gets it right in his lied about the Two Grenadiers.

- The harmony of the song shares with ADITL that wistful wilting away from G Major to e minor.


Arrangement

- The backing track is thickly made up of layers upon layers: the Beatles' own rhythm track and guitar solo; the "Yellow Submarine"- like brass marching band; an electric pinao and harpsichord; and that string section scored in a style that is like a strange cross between Montovani/101-Strings-like schmaltz and the pseudo/surreality of "Strawberry Fields Forever."

- The vocal arrangement is comparatively straightforward, with the so-called wallpaper from the backing vocals in the verses, John's lead vocal, additional backing vocal assisancet from the others in the refrain, and those inevitable booster callouts from Paul.

SECTION-BY-SECTION WALKTHROUGH


Intro

- The intro is three measures long and opens up the procedings with that non-sequitor of an instrumental misquote of the "Marseillaise," dressed up to sound vaguely Baroque in style because of the trills in the last measure:


	|G	D	|G		|C  a     	D|
	 I	V	 I               IV ii          V

Verse

- The overall harmonic motion of this verse vacillates back and forth between I and V. I've taken the trouble to "analyze" the intervening chords, but Heinrich Schenker and his disciples would shame me with their preference we focus here on the melodic motion of the two outer voices in parallel 10ths.

        4               3            4               3
chords  |G      D       |e           |G      D       |vi          |
bassline|G      F#      |E       D  E|G      F#      |E       D  E|
G:       I      V6/3     vi     (V)   I      V6/3     vi     (V)



        4               4               4            3
        |a      e       |D       e      |D           |G       D   |
	|A      G	|F#      E      |D       C   |B   C D D  E|
         ii     vi6/3    V       vi      V      4/2   I6/3    V

- The phrasing of this verse is four square even if the measure lengths are not. The pattern is AAA'B (4 * 2) or if you wish, I can call it AAB ((2 * 2) + 4). The interpolation of the 3/4 meter follows a pattern, though not a slavishly predictable one.


Refrain

- In contrast to the verse, our refrain here is *almost* (but not quite) completely four square; being eight measures in length (4 + 4) with only the final measure limping in 3.

        4               4               4               4
	|G     a	|D		|G	a	|D		|
	 I     ii7/11    V               I      ii7/11   V


        4               4               4               3
	|G	B	|e		|C	D	|I		|
	 I      V-of-vi  vi	         IV     V

- The chord in the second half of measures 1 and 3 is contains one of *the* characterizing harmonies of the track. Regardless of how I've analyzed it, the fingerprint-like signs to note there is the Major second between A and G in the backing vocals combined with D in the tune.


Outro

- The repeat of the final refrain combined with the extended outro lends quite a bit of formalistic weight to the ending of this track; the combination of sections filling out ~1:40 of a track whose total length is just ~3:52. The delay of any noticeable amount of fadeout until just the last 30 seconds or so only adds to this weight.

- The outro finally shifts entirely to 4/4 to provide a subtly different wallpaper pattern for the fadeout, though that rhythmically dotted D-E-G bassline motif persists all the way to the sweet end.

- "Montage" is, indeed, the correct term for the stream-of-consciousness pastiche of musical tidbits used in this outro, though somehow it doesn't seem to do the music justice; such is terminology.

- The Bach trumpet duet is from the opening of the Two Part Invention in F Major (*NOT* from the 2nd Brandenburg as Lewisohn reports), transposed to key of our song and played in its tempo. Not so for Greensleeves which appears in that tonally cubistic style one associates with Charles Ives. In the Mood is played in the correct key but not quite in tempo or at least not in meter.

- Paul's ostinato breaks down for a precious moment ~30 seconds from the end; just before John's blurts out his "Yeserday" non-sequitor.

SOME FINAL THOUGHTS

- To my ears, their quote from "She Loves You" goes beyond the merely clever literary association of the lyrics to become the more profound musical equivalent of the the wax models on the cover of Sgt. Pepper.

Regards,

Alan (awp@world.std.com)

---
"Ready when you are, uncle George"			    081196#118
---


                Copyright (c) 1996 by Alan W. Pollack
                          All Rights Reserved
This article may be reproduced, retransmitted, redistributed and otherwise propagated at will, provided that this notice remains intact and in place.


Ook op Magical Mystery Tour:

ChordsNotes On
Magical Mystery Tour Magical Mystery Tour
The Fool on the Hill The Fool on the Hill
Flying Flying
Blue Jay Way Blue Jay Way
Your Mother Should Know Your Mother Should Know
All You Need Is Love All You Need Is Love
I Am the Walrus I Am the Walrus
Hello Goodbye Hello Goodbye
Strawberry Fields Forever Strawberry Fields Forever
Penny Lane Penny Lane
Baby You're a Rich Man Baby You're a Rich Man

Ook op Yellow Submarine:

ChordsNotes On
Yellow Submarine Yellow Submarine
Only a Northern Song Only a Northern Song
All Together Now All Together Now
Hey Bulldog Hey Bulldog
It's All Too Much It's All Too Much
All You Need Is Love All You Need Is Love
Pepperland 
Sea of Time 
Sea of Holes 
Sea of Monsters 
March of the Meanies 
Pepperland Laid Waste 
Yellow Submarine in Pepperland 

Ook op Yellow Submarine Soundtrack:

ChordsNotes On
Yellow Submarine Yellow Submarine
Hey Bulldog Hey Bulldog
Eleanor Rigby Eleanor Rigby
Love You Too Love You Too
All Together Now All Together Now
Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds
Think for Yourself Think for Yourself
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
With a Little Help from My Friends With a Little Help from My Friends
Baby You're a Rich Man Baby You're a Rich Man
Only a Northern Song Only a Northern Song
All You Need Is Love All You Need Is Love
When I'm Sixty-Four When I'm Sixty-Four
Nowhere Man Nowhere Man
It's All Too Much It's All Too Much

Ook op 1967-1970:

ChordsNotes On
Strawberry Fields Forever Strawberry Fields Forever
Penny Lane Penny Lane
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
With a Little Help from My Friends With a Little Help from My Friends
Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds
A Day in the Life A Day in the Life
All You Need Is Love All You Need Is Love
I Am the Walrus I Am the Walrus
Hello Goodbye Hello Goodbye
The Fool on the Hill The Fool on the Hill
Magical Mystery Tour Magical Mystery Tour
Lady Madonna Lady Madonna
Hey Jude Hey Jude
Revolution Revolution
Back in the U.S.S.R. Back in the U.S.S.R.
While My Guitar Gently Weeps While My Guitar Gently Weeps
Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da
Get Back Get Back
Don't Let Me Down Don't Let Me Down
The Ballad of John and Yoko The Ballad of John and Yoko
Old Brown Shoe Old Brown Shoe
Here Comes the Sun Here Comes the Sun
Come Together Come Together
Something Something
Octopus's Garden Octopus's Garden
Let It Be Let It Be
Across the Universe Across the Universe
The Long and Winding Road The Long and Winding Road

Ook op 1:

ChordsNotes On
Love Me Do Love Me Do
From Me to You From Me to You
She Loves You She Loves You
I Want to Hold Your Hand I Want to Hold Your Hand
Can't Buy Me Love Can't Buy Me Love
A Hard Day's Night A Hard Day's Night
I Feel Fine I Feel Fine
Eight Days a Week Eight Days a Week
Ticket to Ride Ticket to Ride
Help! Help!
Yesterday Yesterday
Day Tripper Day Tripper
We Can Work It Out We Can Work It Out
Paperback Writer Paperback Writer
Yellow Submarine Yellow Submarine
Eleanor Rigby Eleanor Rigby
Penny Lane Penny Lane
All You Need Is Love All You Need Is Love
Hello Goodbye Hello Goodbye
Lady Madonna Lady Madonna
Hey Jude Hey Jude
Get Back Get Back
The Ballad of John and Yoko The Ballad of John and Yoko
Something Something
Come Together Come Together
Let It Be Let It Be
The Long and Winding Road The Long and Winding Road

Ook op Love:

ChordsNotes On
Because Because
Get Back Get Back
Glass Onion Glass Onion
Eleanor Rigby Eleanor Rigby
Julia Julia
I Am the Walrus I Am the Walrus
I Want to Hold Your Hand I Want to Hold Your Hand
Drive My Car / The Word / What You're Doing 
Gnik Nus 
Something Something
Blue Jay Way Blue Jay Way
Being For The Benefit Of Mr. Kite! / I Want You (she's So Heavy) / Helter Skelter 
Help! Help!
Blackbird / Yesterday 
Strawberry Fields Forever Strawberry Fields Forever
Within You Without You / Tomorrow Never Knows 
Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds
Octopus's Garden Octopus's Garden
Lady Madonna Lady Madonna
Here Comes the Sun Here Comes the Sun
The Inner Light The Inner Light
Come Together / Dear Prudence 
Cry Baby Cry Cry Baby Cry
Revolution Revolution
Back in the U.S.S.R. Back in the U.S.S.R.
While My Guitar Gently Weeps While My Guitar Gently Weeps
A Day in the Life A Day in the Life
Hey Jude Hey Jude
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (Reprise) Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (Reprise)
All You Need Is Love All You Need Is Love

(c) 2019 Serge Girard