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And I Love Her

Composer(s) : Lennon and McCartney
Year :

Chords/Tabs: And I Love Her

Notes On "And I Love Her" (AILH)

Copyright 1989 Alan W. Pollack
All Rights Reserved

The plaintive bittersweetness of "And I Love Her" derives in large measure from it's tonal ambiguity; is it in a Major or minor key ?

The song continually flip-flops back and forth between the minor key (c#-minor) and it's relative Major (E-Major). Another major point of interest (and source of ambiguity) in this song is that it makes a delicious modulation up one-half step at the beginning of the guitar break, but more on that later. Some quicky technical tutorial first because it will save time later.


Major/minor Relatives, and Pivot Chords

** Technical background on** Major and minor keys are said to be mutual "relatives" then they share the same key signature. (e.g., C major/a minor, F major/d minor etc.).

Implicit in sharing the key signature is the fact that they share the same chords, although each chord has a different harmonic/grammatical meaning (i.e., crudely put, a different Roman numeral) depending on which mode you're in. For example, in the pair of keys C major/a minor, the d minor triad is common to both but it's the II chord of C and the IV chord of A.

The ample selection of common chords in this situation makes it very easy to modulate between the two keys. Such chords are called "pivot" chords when they're used to effect a smooth modulation from one key to another. In terms of aural perception, one experiences such a chord initially in the old key, but within the following two chords, one retrospectively hears it as part of the new key; a kind of harmonic pun. **Technical background off**


Tonal Ambiguity as Seen from an Harmonic Synopsis

INTRO

The intro repeats the following progression of two chords. I think one hears it as a "weak" (i.e. non-dominant) cadence toward the Major. I won't dwell on it, but starting on a non-I chord in this context is itself ambiguous. Think about it, if you stop the song after the first chord, what key would you think you were in ?

		f#	 -> E
	E:	II	    I

VERSE

So far we think we're in E major, but the next thing that happens at the beginning of the verse ("I give her all my love ...") is that the f#-minor chord moves to the c#-minor chord in a IV ->I cadence; this is repeated three times and I think one gets the definite sensation of being grounded in the relative minor. And yet, in the last line of the verse ("You'd love her too..."), we move from the c# minor chord to a straightforward IV -> V -> I cadence right back into E major again. All this goes down quite smoothly because of the pivots which can be schematically shown as follows:

	Intro			Verse
	--- 2x-----		---- 3x -----
	f#	->E		->f#	->c#	->A	->B	->E
E:	II	I		II		 IV	  V	  I
c#:				IV	I	 VI

BREAK

The above verse is repeated and then we arrive at the break section "A love like ours ...". Here again, we pivot (this time on c#) in a momentary flirtation with the key of g#(!), then appear to be cycling back toward E on the words "near me", only to pivot back again immediately for the next verse starting in c#:

	break							verse
	-----							-----
	c#	->B	->c#	->g#	->c#	->g#	->B	->f#	->c#
E:	VI	  V	VI			 III	  V	 II
		    g#: IV	  I	  IV	  I
							      c#:IV	I

By the way, note how the contour of the chord progression in this break echoes in some way that of the verse; down a step, back up, down a fourth, etc. I don't believe that the composer actually sits there and conceptualizes this, but I also don't believe it's a random coincidence.

GUITAR SOLO

At any rate, the verse repeats again, then, instead of a repeat of the break, we get a verse-worth's of guitar solo. But not so fast -- in the instant in which the guitar solo commences, the music neatly modulates up one half step; if the original key pair was E/c#, we're now in F/d; from the world of 4 sharps to one of one flat.

Now, such upshifts for later verses have been a staple of the 2-minute love song since the fifties but this one is unusual because the first chord in the new key is its IV chord. It's a real attention grabber because it contains no notes in common with the previous key. In this specific case, we're talking about a g minor chord (g-b-flat-d) plunked down in a neighborhood of 4 sharps! A sort of triple cross relation.

Once we get a few bars further and the new tonal plane is established it's no big deal in retrospect; you'd have to listen to the song several times in a loop to necessarily notice that you've ended up higher. Nonetheless, the moment of impact of that g triad is special. If I got away with calling the WCWIO refrain a time warp, then this one is the harmonic equivalent.

CODA

There is one final verse following the solo in which everything is as before except that everything is a half tone higher, followed by a coda very similar to the introduction with one critical difference:

	g	->F	-g	->D *Major*
F:	II	  I     II
d:			IV        I#3

The song ends ironically on the Major version of the relative minor; I would half expect the sheet music to contain a ":-)" at the end. (This gambit has been around since the Baroque period in which it was considered dissonant to end on a minor chord so all pieces in minor keys ended in those days in this manner -- the fancy term is the Piccardy Third, no kidding.)


So What's *the* Answer ?

Which relative key is the song in; major or minor ? Consider the evidence:

- the intro is in the Major

- the verse is in the minor for more than half its length let always shifts to the Major at the end.

- the break goes to a different key, comes around to the Major only to go right into another verse with its predmominant minor opening.

- there is only one break section, but there are 5 verses including the guitar solo.

- IMHO, the upshift modulation is irrelevant to the Major/Minor question and was added in to relieve what otherwise would have been a tedium of too many verses in a row without break.

- the coda, while ending on the root of the Minor, is nonetheless a Major chord.

- on the one hand, there are several strong IV-V-I cadences in the relative Major and none in the relative minor. On the other hand, I believe if you tally the total number of measures in the minor verses Major, then minor wins out.

If you insist on my making a binary decision, I'd hesitantly give it to the minor key "on points" (like a boxing match), but it's kind of moot; the ambiguity per se is what is germane here.

Regards,
Alan (awp@mirror.tmc.com)

---
"They tried to fob you off on this musical charlatan,
 but *I* gave him the test."



Ook op A Hard Day's Night:

ChordsNotes On
A Hard Day's Night A Hard Day's Night
I Should Have Known Better I Should Have Known Better
If I Fell If I Fell
I'm Happy Just to Dance With You I'm Happy Just to Dance With You
And I Love Her And I Love Her
Tell Me Why Tell Me Why
Can't Buy Me Love Can't Buy Me Love
Any Time at All Any Time at All
I'll Cry Instead I'll Cry Instead
Things We Said Today Things We Said Today
When I Get Home When I Get Home
You Can't Do That You Can't Do That
I'll Be Back I'll Be Back

Ook op 1962-1966:

ChordsNotes On
Love Me Do Love Me Do
Please Please Me Please Please Me
From Me to You From Me to You
She Loves You She Loves You
I Want to Hold Your Hand I Want to Hold Your Hand
All My Loving All My Loving
Can't Buy Me Love Can't Buy Me Love
A Hard Day's Night A Hard Day's Night
And I Love Her And I Love Her
Eight Days a Week Eight Days a Week
I Feel Fine I Feel Fine
Ticket to Ride Ticket to Ride
Yesterday Yesterday
Help! Help!
You've Got to Hide Your Love Away You've Got to Hide Your Love Away
We Can Work It Out We Can Work It Out
Day Tripper Day Tripper
Drive My Car Drive My Car
Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown) Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)
Nowhere Man Nowhere Man
Michelle Michelle
In My Life In My Life
Girl Girl
Paperback Writer Paperback Writer
Eleanor Rigby Eleanor Rigby
Yellow Submarine Yellow Submarine

Ook op On Air - Live At The BBC Vol 2:

ChordsNotes On
And Here We Are Again (speech) 
Words of Love Words of Love
How About It, Gorgeus? (speech) 
Do You Want to Know a Secret Do You Want to Know a Secret
Lucille 
Hey, Paul... (speech) 
Anna (Go to Him) Anna (Go to Him)
Hello! (speech) 
Please Please Me Please Please Me
Misery Misery
I'm Talking About You 
A Real Treat (speech) 
Boys Boys
Absolutely Fab (speech) 
Chains Chains
Ask Me Why Ask Me Why
Till There Was You Till There Was You
Lend Me Your Comb 
Lower 5e (speech) 
The Hippy Hippy Shake 
Roll over Beethoven Roll over Beethoven
There's a Place There's a Place
Bumper Bundle (speech) 
P.S. I Love You P.S. I Love You
Please Mr. Postman Please Mr. Postman
Beautiful Dreamer 
Devil in Her Heart Devil in Her Heart
The 49 Weeks (speech) 
Sure To Fall 
Never Mind, Eh? (speech) 
Twist and Shout Twist and Shout
Bye, Bye (speech) 
John Pop Profile (speech) 
George Pop Profile (speech) 
I Saw Her Standing There I Saw Her Standing There
Glad All Over 
Lift Lid Again (speech) 
I'll Get You I'll Get You
She Loves You She Loves You
Memphis, Tennessee 
Happy Birthday, Dear Saturday Club 
Now Hush, Hush (speech) 
From Me to You From Me to You
Money (That's What I Want) Money (That's What I Want)
I Want to Hold Your Hand I Want to Hold Your Hand
Brian Bathtubes 
This Boy This Boy
If I Wasn't In America 
I Got A Woman 
Long Tall Sally Long Tall Sally
If I Fell If I Fell
A Hard Job Writing Them (speech) 
And I Love Her And I Love Her
Oh, Can't We? Yes We Can (speech) 
You Can't Do That You Can't Do That
Honey Don't Honey Don't
I'll Follow the Sun I'll Follow the Sun
Green With Black Shutters (speech) 
Kansas City-Hey-Hey-Hey-Hey! [Medley] Kansas City-Hey-Hey-Hey-Hey! [Medley]
That's What We're Here For (speech) 
I Feel Fine (Studio Outtake)
Paul Pop Profile (speech) 
Ringo Pop Profile (speech) 

(c) 2019 Serge Girard