Composer(s) : Lennon and McCartney
Notes on "Because" (B4)
KEY c# minor
------------ 2X -------
FORM Intro -> Mini bridge -> Verse ->
Full bridge -> Verse ->
Mini bridge -> Outro (w/complete ending)
GENERAL POINTS OF INTEREST
Style and Form
- This song is represents a daring concept on a number of levels: style, form,
harmony, and singing.
- Stylistically it defies neat pigeon-holing in terms of genre. The
finger picked arpeggios might suggest folk music, and the embellished
A Major chords bluesy jazz, but it's difficult to see how any other the
other elements in the music and arrangement support either.
- Formally you can make out the basic contours of a relatively standard
Verse - Verse - Bridge - Verse outline, but the recurring use of what
I've labelled a "mini bridge" and the handling of the outro serve to
blur your sense of formal articulation.
- Harmonically the song has an overall insecure sense of home key because
that infernal mini bridge continually leads the music to the threshold of
D Major, in spite of the repeated establishment of c# minor as the home
key throughout the song by standard I - ii - V - I means.
- The thrice overdubbed three-part vocal arrangement creates a mood of
wide-eyed and unblinkingly rapt contemplation that is sustained wall to
wall with almost unaturally calm intensity. Technique-wise it may
pay hommage to the earlier Beatles efforts of
"This Boy" and
"Yes It Is,"
but there is a transcendent element here that reminds me more so
of a piece such as Bach's "Air" from the 3rd Orchestral Suite; the
movement well known as the one for the (you should pardon the expression)
Melody and Harmony
- The tight interweaving of the three-part vocal harmony makes it difficult
to speak of a definitive "tune" here. What sticks out are the triadic
leaps made as if in sympathy for the arpgeggios in the accompaniment, and
the alternately twisty or oscillating melissmas that turn up in the inner
voices or the top voice toward the phrase endings.
- Standard chords used here include i, ii (half diminished as it usually
is in a minor ket), IV (in Major form as occurs in the so-called melodic
minor mode), V, and VI.
- Unusual chords used here are the "Neopolitan" flat-II chord (D Major
in context of a c# minor home key), and the diminished 7th chord built
on d which, according the poetic license of chromatic harmony, can
enharmonically morph on you to resolve to as many as eight different
places; in this song John exploits at least two of those alternatives.
- The 3 + 3 + 2 grouping of the arpeggios figuration resonates nicely
with the similar examples of the like in the previous track, HCTS.
- The intro is layered in a manner that amounts for the Beatles to something
of a mannerism. The first four measures are for electric harpsichord alone.
The next four measures add a guitar doubling the harpsichord part,
plucked near the bridge to sound as percussive as a keyboard might. Vocals
and bass enter with the first mini bridge. The synthesizer, in the style of
a brass ensemble, enters dramatically in the middle of the full bridge.
- By the way, what indeed was Ringo doing while this track was being recorded?
- The intro is eight measures long, breaks into two phrases of equal
length, and has an unusual harmonic shape, opening out to the VI chord:
|c# |- |d# half dim.7 |G# |
c# i ii7 V
|A |c# |A 9/7 |- 13 |
VI i VI (a.k.a. V-of-flat-II)
- The mini bridge is only two measures long. It harmonically starts
off sounding like a pseudo modulation (think of the A Major chord
that ends the verse pivoting as a V of D), but chromatically slinks
right back to the original home key by way of an unusually handled
diminished 7th chord:
S A G# -
A F# F nat. E
T D B
B D D C#
|D |g# dim.4/3 c#
flat-II ?? i
- Did I say "slinks"? From a trace of the voice leading it appears as if
the D chord rather "melts" downward to the c# chord. This downward root
movement of a semi-tone makes an effective mirror image with the upward
movement from G# to A found in the verses.
- The voice leading, by the way, implies that this diminished chord is
"rooted" on G#, and with the D in the bass, putting the chord in its
second, or "4/3," inversion. Please don't try to rationalize a Roman
numeral for this chord
- The vocals are always wordless in this section.
- This section follows the intro exactly.
- The full bridge is six measures long and is built as a clever extension
of the mini bridge with an harmonic shape that opens up wide on V:
S A G# F#
A F# E# C#
T D B A#
B D D F#
|D |e# dim.6/5 |F# |- |
flat-II vii-of-IV IV
|G#7 |- |
- The diminished chord in the second measure "sounds" just like the one
in the mini bridge, but rules of voice leading suggest it is rooted this
time on E#(!), and with the D in the bassline, that places the chord in
the first, or 6/5, inversion. The extent to which both diminished 7th
chords are enharmonically identical demonstrates the unique harmonic
power (as well as "danger") created by the ambiguity of this kind of
- The wordless pattern followed by the mini bridge is dramatically broken
in the second measure of this section.
- The outro on paper looks like a verse section with a final mini bridge
tacked on to it.
- However, the decision to utilize wordless vocals for the entirety of
this outro, aside from being a deft unifying gesture for the track taken
as a whole, allows the mini bridge *preceding* the outro to bind with the
outro into an interesting ABA substructure. It's internally symmetrical,
though it upsets your expectation reinforced so many times previously in
the song of the mini bridge as being more separate from the verse section.
- The diminished seventh chord, in its appearance at the end of the earlier
mini bridge the sections, provides a novel kind of harmonically "open"
ending to a musical paragraph. Left hanging as it is at the very end
of this track works on several levels:
- The extent to which this chord has always melted back into c# minor
makes the verse + mini bridge combo into a musical moebius strip. What
better way to suggest the potential for this loop to continue infinitely
than to break it right here? Compare with the ending of IWYSSH.
- The diminished chord left hanging unresolved suggests a kind of
expectantly bedazzled, trance-like state of mind, the rather mystical
eventuality of so much sustained contemplation.
- And when poetry won't pull you through you can hear just how smoothly
this same chord enharmonically resolves (yet again with different voice
leading) to the A Minor7 which opens the next track.
SOME FINAL THOUGHTS
- Lewisohn (RS, page 184) is where I first learned that "Because" was
supposedly inspired by John's hearing Yoko play the first movement of
Beethoven's piano sonata, op.27 no. 2, the "Moonlight:"
"John, in clearly inspirational mood, reversed the chords, added some
simple but eloquent lyrics and the song was written. Simple as that."
- The choice of home key and the triplet-like arpeggiation in both pieces
are gonnections easily made between the two pieces. In terms of mood,
Beethoven's tempo marking is "Adagio Sostenuto."
- The harmonic parallels between them is much more subtle than the simple
reversing of chords described by ML, but they are there to be found if
you look close enough. With the exception of the much discussed diminished
seventh chord you'll find that every other chord used in this song can be
found in Beethoven's 1st movement, including both VI and flat-II played
in sequence as early as the 3rd measure.
"We've broken out, oh, the blessed freedom of it all!" 121299#184
Copyright (c) 1999 by Alan W. Pollack
All Rights Reserved
This article may be reproduced, retransmitted, redistributed and
otherwise propagated at will, provided that this notice remains
intact and in place.
Ook op Abbey Road:
Ook op Anthology 3:
Ook op Love:
(c) 2019 Serge Girard