I Should Have Known Better
Composer(s) : Lennon and McCartney
Year : 1964
Chords/Tabs: I Should Have Known Better
Notes on "I Should Have Known Better" (ISHKB)
"I Should Have Known Better" is a deceptively straightforward song in which,
if you look closely enough, you find a number of ways in which The Boys simply
refuse to just play it straight.
Although the points of interest find themselves sorted into the areas
of harmony, arrangement and form, I think it's pedagogically easier to
cover them in an end-to-end run though.
A number of musical elements which ultimate characterize the entire
song are immediately presented in the short and simple four-measure
- the alternating I-V chord pattern: this continues beyond the intro
through no less than five measures of the verse.
- the backing arrangement: we have acoustic guitar, light drumming, and
a melodic, almost hyper-active bass which is mixed relatively far back.
- the bluesy harmonica: the 'e-f-e' melodic pattern of this part creates a
series of piquant dissonances against the recurring D chord in the
accompaniment - the 'e' on the down beat making a nice 9th, and the
f-natural neighbor tone making a class-A cross-relation against the
f-sharp of the chord beneath. It's also interesting to follow the
intermittent use of this harmonica throughout the song. You walk
away from a casual listen thinking it's always there but, do trace it
carefully and note how, with the exception of the guitar solo, it is
actually used rather sparingly, its primary function being to introduce each
verse in turn; illustrating yet another basic compositional principle --
in matters of spice, a little goes a long way.
Verse 1 "I should have known better with a girl like you ..."
A most unusual feature of ISHKB is that the verses come in two variants;
those which are followed directly by another verse (as are the first, third,
and fourth) are characterized by a ten-measure length and a "closed"
harmonic shape; i.e., entirely in G Major, both beginning and ending
essentially on the I chord:
-- 5X -- -- 2X --
|G D |e e |C |D |G D |
G: I V vi6 vi IV V I V
Other points of interest in verse variant #1:
- From the phrasing of the words, as well as the melodic structure, you
see that the ten measures are meant to be parsed as 6 (actually 4 + 2) + 4.
Those seemingly "extra" middle two measures ("that I would love everything
that you do") with their repeat of the melody from the preceding two measures
create a rhetorical, free-verse feeling.
- The slowing of the harmonic rhythm in measures seven and eight adds nice
ballast, just as the return of the I-V oscillating harmony in measures
nine and ten adds symmetry.
- The closed harmonic shape is reinforced by the melody which hovers
around a relatively restricted choice of pitches.
- Coloristically, the melodic emphasis on the note 'e' not only extends
the presence of the D9 sonority already heard in the intro, but also
creates a pervasive added-sixth chord on G.
- Measure six features the rare occurrence in this genre of a chord in
non-root position; the e chord is sustained through the entire measure,
with a bass line which descends from G down to E, placing the chord at
the beginning of the measure in the so-called "first" or "6-3" inversion.
- And, of course, there's no harmonica here, except in measures nine and ten,
where it introduces the next verse.
Verse 2 "Woah-oah, I never realized what a kiss could be ..."
Verse variant #2 is used for those verses (i.e. the second and the fifth)
which lead directly into a bridge section, and is characterized by an eight-
measure length and an "open" harmonic shape; i.e., starting in G major
but leading to the key (actually ending on the V chord) of the relative
minor key of e:
-- 5X --
|G D |e e |C |B |
G: I V vi6 vi IV
e: VI V
Bridge "And when I tell you that I love you ..."
The bridge is an unusually long and well developed sixteen measure section
of four different phrases, starting in the key of e minor and eventually
modulating back to the home key of G Major via a pivot on the C chord in
the ninth measure:
|e |C |G |B ||e |- |G |G7 |
e: i VI III V i III V-of-VI
|C |D |G |e ||C |D |G D |G D |
G: IV V I vi IV V I V I V
Some noteworthy details:
- The melodic line, over the course of the four phrases, creates a lovely
arch shape, with the obvious climax on that upward falsetto flip of the
twelfth measure. The fairly large amount of melodic ground covered by this
bridge is in contrast to the more restricted pitch range of the verses.
- The arrangement introduces the electric guitar in the bridge for the
purpose of underscoring the first beat of every measure with a single strummed
chord. Note that this effect actually begins on the last measure of the
previous verse, somewhat smoothing over the "seam" between the second verse
and the bridge.
- The harmony subtly teases you when it dips down to the e chord in measure
twelve, just when you think you've fully turned the corner back toward G.
- The harmonica, true to form, returns in measures fifteen and sixteen to
herald the arrival of the next verse.
Verse 3 - "So-o I should have realized a lot of things before ..."
Another variant #1 verse.
Verse 4 - Guitar Solo
This is still another variant #1 verse, featuring a guitar solo in place
of the usual vocal. This solo, by the way, being a repetition of the original
melody with just the slightest hint of embellishment, is a good example of
what has become a dying breed.
The solo ends with a surprise touch: the melodic leading tone of f# near the
end of the solo, instead of being resolved up to g, is followed by an
added-sixth G chord with an e on the top.
Note how this solo section is the only one in which the harmonica continues
its ostinato pattern all the way through a verse, creating some strikingly
dissonant tone clusters against the melody of the guitar; in particular,
against that added-sixth chord at the end.
Verse 5 - "Woah-oah, I never realized what a kiss could be ..."
This is a repeat of the second verse, right down to the same lyrics.
Bridge 2 - "Amd when I tell you that I love you ..."
The only difference between this and the first bridge is the sudden
shift, for the first time in the entire song, to a single track
recording of John's voice. As an example of the sort of attention paid
to fine detail, note how the double tracking is restored just for an instant
in order to reinforce the falsetto flip.
This section is perhaps the high point of the song because of the
single tracking; it's still has the power to stop you in your tracks,
so to speak. Based on outtakes of other songs from this period (e.g.,
the rough rehearsal of "A Hard Day's Night" on URT), I'm tempted to argue
that John was more usually double tracked, not because he didn't sound
secure enough without it, but, quite the opposite, because in single
track mode, he almost sounds *too intense*. If you doubt the capability
of this sound to awaken little spikes of whatnot in it's listeners, I
recommend you take a peek at the performance of ISHKB in the baggage car
scene of the AHDN film; do keep a lookout for exactly where in the song
Patti Whatsername covers her face with her blonde hair 'cause she can't
stand it any longer :-).
Outro - "You love me too ..."
The second bridge is followed by an outro which fades out with the
same musical pattern and arrangement of the intro, this time, with
the voice added.
The Overall Form
When you put it all together, you find that the form is an unusual,
even strange, variation on the more standard two-bridge model:
The unusual features here are the appearance in the middle of three verse
sections in a row, and the appearance of the second bridge at the very end
with no verse section following.
Finally, a Rhythmic Detail
Underlying all the other structural and harmonic details discussed
above, there is a pervasive use in this song of syncopated accents
on the last eighth note of the measure; if you count along very quickly
in tempo, you'll find this accent on the off beat of "four-AND".
This subtle element not only helps unify the song, but also underlies
the extent to which you might say that this song "swings" or conveys
a "passionate subtext".
I don't want to spoil the party for those who like to go digging
for these details on their own, but I promise you that this syncopation is
to be found all over the song. Just a few examples to get you jazzed for
further study: the harmonica part starting in the second measure of the
intro, the first entrance of the voice part on the word "I", the end
of each phrase of the verse (e.g., on the words "you" and "do" in verse
one), and of course my favorite, the very top of the falsetto flip.
Oh well, I went into this one expecting to find something close to a
standard formula, and boy, was I surprised. But then again, I suppose
I should have known better. (Ooops, time for me to cover *my* face.)
"They tried to fob you off on this musical charlatan,
but *I* gave him the test." 020190#15
Copyright (c) 1990 by Alan W. Pollack
All Rights Reserved
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Ook op A Hard Day's Night:
(c) 2020 Serge Girard